See Article History Chemistry, the science that deals with the properties, composition , and structure of substances defined as elements and compounds , the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whether naturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one or more of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identified as elements. Although these atoms, in turn, are composed of more elementary particles, they are the basic building blocks of chemical substances; there is no quantity of oxygen , mercury , or gold , for example, smaller than an atom of that substance. Chemistry, therefore, is concerned not with the subatomic domain but with the properties of atoms and the laws governing their combinations and how the knowledge of these properties can be used to achieve specific purposes. The great challenge in chemistry is the development of a coherent explanation of the complex behaviour of materials, why they appear as they do, what gives them their enduring properties, and how interactions among different substances can bring about the formation of new substances and the destruction of old ones. From the earliest attempts to understand the material world in rational terms, chemists have struggled to develop theories of matter that satisfactorily explain both permanence and change. The ordered assembly of indestructible atoms into small and large molecules , or extended networks of intermingled atoms, is generally accepted as the basis of permanence, while the reorganization of atoms or molecules into different arrangements lies behind theories of change. Thus chemistry involves the study of the atomic composition and structural architecture of substances, as well as the varied interactions among substances that can lead to sudden, often violent reactions.
Textile manufacturing by pre
Posted on April 23, by energyskeptic [ These are my notes from this book about how we went from an organic sustainable economy to a temporary fossil-fueled one. Wrigley also compares the Western European marriage system, where couples were much older because they had to wait until they could support themselves, which might require say, the parents to die, since the land was not subdivided usually but went to the first male child. But in Eastern European countries, most women were married at a very young age not long after puberty, and ended up having far more children as well.
The Western European marriage system prevented the outcome Malthus had predicted in his first writings — that inevitably the standard of living was bound to be depressed to bare subsistence level and misery for most of the population.
I. Introduction. In the early years of the nineteenth century, Americans’ endless commercial ambition—what one Baltimore paper in called an"almost universal ambition to get forward”—remade the nation. 1 Between the Revolution and the Civil War, an old subsistence world died and a new more-commercial nation was born. Americans integrated the technologies of the Industrial.
The data deluge Feb 25th But they are also creating a host of new problems. Despite the abundance of tools to capture, process and share all this information—sensors, computers, mobile phones and the like—it already exceeds the available storage space see chart 1. Moreover, ensuring data security and protecting privacy is becoming harder as the information multiplies and is shared ever more widely around the world.
Alex Szalay, an astrophysicist at Johns Hopkins University, notes that the proliferation of data is making them increasingly inaccessible. The effect is being felt everywhere, from business to science, from government to the arts. Scientists and computer engineers have coined a new term for the phenomenon: Epistemologically speaking, information is made up of a collection of data and knowledge is made up of different strands of information.
Given enough raw data, today’s algorithms and powerful computers can reveal new insights that would previously have remained hidden.
However, although Engels wrote in the s, his book was not translated into English until the late s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee , whose lectures gave a detailed account of the term. This is still a subject of debate among some historians. Important technological developments The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,  beginning in the second half of the 18th century.
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The battle lines were clearly drawn. People were either workers or bosses, and with that strong identity often came an equally strong dislike for those who were on the other side. As the number of self-employed Americans dwindled in the Gilded Age, workers began to feel strength in their numbers and ask greater and greater demands of their bosses. When those demands were rejected, they plotted schemes to win their cases. Those who managed factories developed strategies to counteract those of labor.
At times the relationship between the camps was as intellectual and tense as a tough chess match. Other times it was as ugly as a schoolyard fight.
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History of Matches History of Matches – Early and Modern Matches The need to control fire enabled out ancestors to distinguish themselves from animals, and evolve into beings that could survive in hostile environments, shape the nature around them, prepare food from inedible natural sources and create a basis for modern human civilization that sparked its first light in ancient Mesopotamia.
With almost two million years of fire present in our life, this source of power played key role in our evolution and survival. Evidence of widespread control of fire came from thousand years ago, especially during Neolithic Revolution when wide expansion of grain-based agriculture forced humans to use fire as a tool in landscape management.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about to sometime between and This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.
Messenger Robots have been taking our jobs since the s. So why are politicians and business leaders only now becoming so worried about robots causing mass unemployment? It comes down to the question of what a robot really is. While science fiction has often portrayed robots as androids carrying out tasks in the much the same way as humans, the reality is that robots take much more specialised forms. Traditional 20th century robots were automated machines and robotic arms building cars in factories.
Commercial 21st century robots are supermarket self-checkouts, automated guided warehouse vehicles , and even burger-flipping machines in fast-food restaurants. They do not think, they just act, in very accurate but very limited ways. But this is all set to change thanks to a new wave of smarter, better value machines that can adapt to multiple tasks. This change will be so significant that it will create a new industrial revolution.
The fourth industrial revolution. It is a mix of low-cost and high-power computers, high-speed communication and artificial intelligence. This will produce smarter robots with better sensing and communication abilities that can adapt to different tasks, and even coordinate their work to meet demand without the input of humans. In the manufacturing industry, where robots have arguably made the most headway of any sector, this will mean a dramatic shift from centralised to decentralised collaborative production.
Traditional robots focused on single, fixed, high-speed operations and required a highly skilled human workforce to operate and maintain them.
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But these were the women who worked 14 hours a day in the East End of London and who were exposed to deadly phosphorous vapours on a daily basis. The effect literally causing the jaw bone to rot. Doctors soon began treating these women for the disease — which would often spread to the brain leading to a particularly painful and horrific death, unless the jaw was removed.
And even then a prolonged life was not guaranteed.
Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human activities. The oldest known textiles date back to about B.C. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by yarn is processed by knitting or weaving to create machine used for weaving is the is finished by what are described as wet.
Introduction When British author Rudyard Kipling visited Chicago in , he described a city captivated by technology and blinded by greed. They repeated their statements again and again. Library of Congress, LC-D Chicago embodied the triumph of American industrialization. Its meatpacking industry typified the sweeping changes occurring in American life. The last decades of the nineteenth century, a new era for big business, saw the formation of large corporations, run by trained bureaucrats and salaried managers, doing national and international business.
The Chicago meat processing industry, a cartel of five firms, produced four-fifths of the meat bought by American consumers. In , Chicago had a population of about 30, Twenty years later, it had ,
Born at a time when China was wracked by civil strife, beset with terrible poverty and encroached on by more advanced foreign powers, he lived to fulfill his boyhood dream of restoring it to its traditional place as a great nation. With incredible perseverance and consummately conceived strategy, he harnessed the forces of agrarian discontent and nationalism to turn a tiny band of peasants into an army of millions, which he led to victory throughout China in after 20 years of fighting.
Along the way the army fought battles as big as Stalingrad and suffered through a heroic march as long as Alexander’s. Then, after establishing the Chinese People’s Republic, Mao launched a series of sweeping, sometimes convulsive campaigns to transform a semifeudal, largely illiterate and predominantly agricultural country encompassing almost four million square miles and a fifth of the world’s population into a modern, industrialized socialist state. By the time of his death China had manufactured its own nuclear bombs and guided missiles and had become a major oil producer.
With China’s resurgence, Mao also charted a new course in foreign affairs, putting an end to a century of humiliation under the “unequal treaties” imposed by the West and winning new recognition and respect.
The Agricultural Revolution was a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity that occurred during the 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe.
Flax[ [ edit ]he preparations for spinning is similar across most plant fibres, including Flax and Hemp. Flax is the fibre used to create linen. Cotton is handled differently since it uses the fruit of the plant and not the stem. Harvesting Flax is pulled out of the ground about a month after the initial blooming when the lower part of the plant begins to turn yellow, and when the most forward of the seeds are found in a soft state.
It is pulled in handfuls and several handfuls are tied together with slip knot into a ‘beet’. The string is tightened as the stalks dry. The seed heads are removed and the seeds collected, by threshing and winnowing. Retting Threshing and dressing flax at the Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum Retting is the process of rotting away the inner stalk, leaving the outer fibres intact. A standing pool of warm water is needed, into which the beets are submerged. An acid is produced when retting, and it would corrode a metal container.
When the retting is complete the bundles feel soft and slimy, The process can be overdone, and the fibres rot too. Dressing the flax Dressing is removing the fibres from the straw and cleaning it enough to be spun. The flax is broken, scutched and hackled in this step. Breaking flax in pre-revolutionary Perm , Russia Breaking The process of breaking breaks up the straw into short segments.